Exodus 12

Take a lamb without blemish 1
Blood on the doorposts 7
I will pass over 11
Unleavened bread 15
Instruction to the elders 21
Firstborn struck at midnight; Israelites asked to leave 29
The host of Israel left Egypt; after 430 years 37
Ordinance of the Passover 43
Text
Comments
.1 ¶ And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,
 2  This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.
.3  Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house:
 4  And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb.
.5  Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year: ye shall take it out from the sheep, or from the goats:
.6  And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.
   2 - Beginning of months Here was established the sanctuary calendar with the first two feasts Passover and Unleavened Bread often considered together as Passover.
  5 - Without blemish Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God, would be without sin. The lamb would be in its first year of life.
  6 - Fourteenth day ... evening The dark part of the day came first so all of the light part which followed was still Passover day le2332.
.7  And they shall take of the blood, and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.
8  And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
 9  Eat not of it raw, nor sodden [cooked] at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the pertinence thereof.
.10  And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire.
   7 - Blood ... posts A lesson for them and for us. What would this mean? Protection from being slain with the wicked.
   10 - Nothing of it remain A command worth
 meditation as it relates to the Lamb of Calvary jn0653. We assume that "nothing" means nothing of the edible parts that would "remain."
.11  And thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the LORD'S passover.
.12  For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
 13  And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt.
.14  And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.

   11 - Loins girded Robes were long so, for active work, the front part was pulled up and tucked under the waist band. This could be done without compromising modesty. The people were to be ready.
   12 - I will pass through From v11, it was "the Lord's passover. He takes no pleasure in destroying the wicked but in justice had to in Egypt and will at the end of the thousand years is2821, ez3311.
   12 - All the gods The people worshipped many animal gods including the sacred bull, Apis. Their firstborn would die. The Lord left no doubt about the error of false worship.
   13 - Pass over you Thus the name of the feast. What did Jesus Christ do to make this a reality for those who accept?
   14 - Memorial This was to be an annual celebration. The people would learn soon that the passover Lamb would represent the Lamb of God who would lay down his life for the salvation of all from sin.
Image of Egyptian goddess Isis with the "fleur de lis" © 1990 Laymen for Religious Liberty. Used by permission
.15  Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.
.16  And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you.
 17  And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever.
.18  In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.
 19  Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land.
 20  Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.
  15 - Cut off From the blessings and privileges granted to the children of Israel. The expression may also be used to mean death. Compare ro0903, ge1714. Jesus was cut off from the Father on the cross mr1534, da0926.
.21 ¶ Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover.
.22  And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning.
23  For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.
 24  And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever.
 25  And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service.
.26  And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service?
 27  That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the LORD'S passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped.
 28  And the children of Israel went away, and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

  22 - Hissop Contrasted with the cedar 1ki0433. We do not know what plant it is.
  22 - None ... go out Only staying inside that door was safety. Our only safety is by claiming the blood of the supreme sacrifice of Jesus Christ jn0136.
  22 - Strike the lintel Only by accepting the blood of the Lamb of Calvary is our salvation secure.
.29 ¶ And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.
.30  And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
 31  And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.
  29 - At midnight Literally, "In the half of the night." The time of this judgment was not announced to the king. He had had his last invitation ex1028,29.
  29 - Firstborn of Pharaoh Probably the Pharaoh, Amenhotep II.
  30 - Pharaoh rose up Everyone was awakened apparently at midnight as the firstborn died.
.32  Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.
.33  And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men.
 34  And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders.
  32 - Take ... flocks ... me also The monarch was completely humbled.
"Throughout the vast realm of Egypt the pride of every household had been laid low. The shrieks and wails of the mourners filled the air. King and courtiers, with blanched faces and trembling limbs, stood aghast at the overmastering horror. Pharaoh remembered how he had once exclaimed, 'Who is Jehovah, that I should obey His voice to let Israel go? I know not Jehovah, neither will I let Israel go.' Now, his heaven-daring pride humbled in the dust, he 'called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as ye have said. Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said. . . . And be gone; and bless me also.' The royal counselors also and the people entreated the Israelites to depart "out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men." (Ellen White, Patriarchs and Prophets, p. 279).
.35  And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed [or "requested"] of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment:
 36  And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.
  35 - Borrowed Probably the Egyptians understood that the items were not to be returned. The Hebrew word is broader than its translation. Taking these things was very just because the Israelites had been working as slaves for these people. They had earned the valuables. This was one of God's ways of providing for His people.
.37 ¶ And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children.
.38  And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.
 39  And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.
 40  Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.
.41  And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.
 42  It is a night to be much observed unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to be observed of all the children of Israel in their generations.
  37 - From Rameses See on nu3303. The difference in spelling is only from the vowel marking which was added to the text in the seventh century A.D. (of the Christian era).
  38 - Mixed multitude These were Egyptians who had accepted the true God but whose habits and hearts were not easily changed. Hearing their complaints, the Israelites often joined their rebellion. Also ex0322.
.43 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof:
.44  But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.
 45  A foreigner and an hired servant shall not eat thereof.
.46  In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof.
 47  All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.
  46 - Break a bone Thus the Passover Lamb representing Christ. jn1933, 36.
.48  And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.
 49  One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.
 50  Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.
.51  And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.
  49 - One law This statement challenges the modern idea that God will deal differently with Jewish people. The idea of a difference may have been created to support the mistaken idea that the temple shown to Ezekiel will be built at some point in the future. See on ez40 and ez4310.
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