2 Samuel 23

David's last words 1
A list of his mighty men 8
The first seven verses are a psalm recorded only here.
 1 ¶ Now these be the last words of David. David the son of Jesse said, and the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet psalmist of Israel, said,
 2 The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and his word was in my tongue.
.3 The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. 
 4 And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.
  1 - Said The Hebrew word indicates speech by or for God.
  1 - Raised up on high David came from humble circumstances. 2sa0708f, ps07870, ps08927.
  3 - He that ruleth We may see here the beginning of what God said. David had fulfilled this expectation.
  4 - He shall be as the light The just ruler (David, now facing death) would become like morning light (morning of the resurrection) springing from the grave as fresh grass. mal0402, ac0234. At verse 6 we see the alternative.
 5 Although my house be not so with God; yet he hath made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure: for this is all my salvation, and all my desire, although he make it not to grow.   8 - House be not so with God David's own house his children would not realize this promise. But the covenant was sure.
 6 But the sons of Belial shall be all of them as thorns thrust away, because they cannot be taken with hands:   6 - The sons of Belial or "of worthlessness."
  6 -All of them thrust away Most of the rulers who followed David did not qualify as "just, ruling in the fear of God" v3.
 7 But the man that shall touch them must be fenced with iron and the staff of a spear; and they shall be utterly burned with fire in the same place.  7 - Cannot be taken with hands They were as thorns and would injure those who tried to help them. For example je2620ff.
 7 -Utterly burned During the thousand years the righteous will reign with Christ in judgment of the wicked. When the city comes down they will be protected as the wicked surround it and again try to injure it but fire will come down from God and totally destroy them. See re2009, ob16.
The second part of the chapter begins
.8 ¶ These be the names of the mighty men whom David had: The Tachmonite that sat in the seat, chief among the captains; the same was Adino the Eznite: he lift up his spear against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time.   8 - Mighty men David lists those he considered valiant.  He remembered them as his human strength... See a similar list at 1ch1111-47.
  8 -That sat in the seat Some have translated the Hebrew making the phrase a name. See the RSV .
  8 - Eight hundred Or, as in 1ch1111.
  8 - Chief among the captains See 1ch2702. He served in the first division and for the first month of David's army 2ki0702
 9 And after him was Eleazar the son of Dodo the Ahohite, one of the three mighty men with David, when they defied the Philistines that were there gathered together to battle, and the men of Israel were gone away:
 10 He arose, and smote the Philistines until his hand was weary, and his hand clave unto the sword: and the LORD wrought a great victory that day; and the people returned after him only to spoil.
 11 And after him was Shammah the son of Agee the Hararite. And the Philistines were gathered together into a troop, where was a piece of ground full of lentiles: and the people fled from the Philistines. 
 12 But he stood in the midst of the ground, and defended it, and slew the Philistines: and the LORD wrought a great victory.
.13 And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim. 
.14 And David was then in an hold, and the garrison of the Philistines was then in Bethlehem.
 15 And David longed, and said, Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem, which is by the gate!
 16 And the three mighty men brake through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the well of Bethlehem, that was by the gate, and took it, and brought it to David: nevertheless he would not drink thereof, but poured it out unto the LORD.
 17 And he said, Be it far from me, O LORD, that I should do this: is not this the blood of the men that went in jeopardy of their lives? therefore he would not drink it. These things did these three mighty men.
  13 - Rephaim Just SW of Jerusalem. See map.
  14 - Bethlehem On the same map. Also see on ge3519.
.18 And Abishai, the brother of Joab, the son of Zeruiah, was chief among three. And he lifted up his spear against three hundred, and slew them, and had the name among three. 
 19 Was he not most honourable of three? therefore he was their captain: howbeit he attained not unto the first three.
 20 And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man, of Kabzeel, who had done many acts, he slew two lionlike men of Moab: he went down also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in time of snow: 
.21 And he slew an Egyptian, a goodly man: and the Egyptian had a spear in his hand; but he went down to him with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his own spear. 
 22 These things did Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and had the name among three mighty men.
 23 He was more honourable than the thirty, but he attained not to the first three. And David set him over his guard.
  21 - Rod See on ps02304.
 24 Asahel the brother of Joab was one of the thirty; Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem,
 25 Shammah the Harodite, Elika the Harodite,
 26 Helez the Paltite, Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite,
 27 Abiezer the Anethothite, Mebunnai the Hushathite,
 28 Zalmon the Ahohite, Maharai the Netophathite,
 29 Heleb the son of Baanah, a Netophathite, Ittai the son of Ribai out of Gibeah of the children of Benjamin,
 30 Benaiah the Pirathonite, Hiddai of the brooks of Gaash, 
 31 Abialbon the Arbathite, Azmaveth the Barhumite,
 32 Eliahba the Shaalbonite, of the sons of Jashen, Jonathan,
 33 Shammah the Hararite, Ahiam the son of Sharar the Hararite,
.34 Eliphelet the son of Ahasbai, the son of the Maachathite, Eliam the son of Ahithophel the Gilonite,
 35 Hezrai the Carmelite, Paarai the Arbite,
 36 Igal the son of Nathan of Zobah, Bani the Gadite,
 37 Zelek the Ammonite, Naharai the Beerothite, armourbearer to Joab the son of Zeruiah,
 38 Ira an Ithrite, Gareb an Ithrite,
 39 Uriah the Hittite: thirty and seven in all.
  29 - Gibeah See map, north of Jerusalem.
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