Luke 20

Jesus' authority questioned 1
Parable of the wicked vinedressers 9
Challenge about paying taxes 20
Sadducees and the resurrection 27
The Son was David's Lord 41
Beware of the proud scribes 45
Jesus authority questioned. Luke 20:1-8; Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33.
.1 ¶ And it came to pass, that on one of those days, as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes came upon him with the elders,
 2  And spake unto him, saying, Tell us, by what authority doest thou these things? or who is he that gave thee this authority?
 3  And he answered and said unto them, I will also ask you one thing; and answer me:
 4  The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men?
 5  And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then believed ye him not?
 6  But and if we say, Of men; all the people will stone us: for they be persuaded that John was a prophet.
 7  And they answered, that they could not tell whence it was.
 8  And Jesus said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things.
   1 - Chief priests and the scribes came Notice the situation. For more, see on mt2123.
   2 - By what authority They had set themselves as the authorities saying who could preach and what could be said just as the fallen church of the middle ages would do. They expected Him to immediately acknowledge His divine mission which they intended to deny.
   7 - Could not tell Undoubtedly they had been convicted of the divine inspiration of the prophet. But rejection changes perceptions. See lu0730.
Wicked vineyard workers. Luke 20:9-19; Matt. 21:33-46; Mark 12:1-12
.9 ¶ Then began he to speak to the people this parable; A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, and went into a far country for a long time.
 10  And at the season he sent a servant to the husbandmen, that they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard: but the husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty.
 11  And again he sent another servant: and they beat him also, and entreated him shamefully, and sent him away empty.
 12  And again he sent a third: and they wounded him also, and cast him out.
 13  Then said the lord of the vineyard, What shall I do? I will send my beloved son: it may be they will reverence him when they see him.
 14  But when the husbandmen saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, This is the heir: come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.
 15  So they cast him out of the vineyard, and killed him. What therefore shall the lord of the vineyard do unto them?
.16  He shall come and destroy these husbandmen, and shall give the vineyard to others. And when they heard it, they said, God forbid.
   9 - Vineyard His hearers knew well the story of the vineyard of is05. The story is also at mr1201 with major comments at mt2133.
  11 - Again he sent another Or "he added to send another" Following a Hebrew idiom.
  12 - Wounded From traumatizo.
  13 - What shall I do? Only Luke records this.
  16 - He shall destroy ... give to others -This is a critical point to read carefully. Who was the Heir? Christ. These very men were about to kill Him. And what would happen? They would be destroyed and the vineyard the cultivation of souls for the kingdom would be given to others. They had been given the responsibility of sharing truth and covering all who would accept. Instead they became corrupt and the gospel went to the Gentiles. They would forever cease to be the chosen people to fulfill the divine mission.
   16 - God forbid This is not at all what the Greek text says. Other translations show something like "May it never be." The people were saying, Oh no, never us! See the major account in Matthew mt2133.
.17  And he beheld them, and said, What is this then that is written, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner?
.18  Whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall be broken; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.
 19  And the chief priests and the scribes the same hour sought to lay hands on him; and they feared the people: for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them.
   17 - Stone ... rejected ps11822., mt2144, mt1616ff, is2816.
   18 - Fall on that stone Coming to Christ and taking His yoke means humility and boldly putting the power of the grace of Christ to work. The alternative clinging to the ways of sin means being destroyed with it.
   19 - They perceived They knew their wickedness but were unwilling to change.
Paying tribute to Caesar. Mark 12:13-17; Luke 20:20-26; Matt. 22:15-22.
.20 ¶ And they watched him, and sent forth spies, which should feign themselves just men, that they might take hold of his words, that so they might deliver him unto the power and authority of the governor.
 21  And they asked him, saying, Master, we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly, neither acceptest thou the person of any, but teachest the way of God truly:
22  Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?
 23  But he perceived their craftiness, and said unto them, Why tempt ye me?
 24  Shew me a penny. Whose image and superscription hath it? They answered and said, Caesar's.
.25  And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.
.26  And they could not take hold of his words before the people: and they marvelled at his answer, and held their peace.
  See mr1213 and on mt2215ff.

  23 - Why tempt ye me? These words are not in the NIV. 
  26 - Held their peace Compare Jesus' question about removing the ox from a pit on the Sabbath lu1405.
On marriage and resurrection. Luke 20:27-38; Matt. 22:23-33; Mark 12:18-27.
.27 ¶ Then came to him certain of the Sadducees, which deny that there is any resurrection; and they asked him,
 28  Saying, Master, Moses wrote unto us, If any man's brother die, having a wife, and he die without children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.
 29  There were therefore seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and died without children.
 30  And the second took her to wife, and he died childless.
 31  And the third took her; and in like manner the seven also: and they left no children, and died.
 32  Last of all the woman died also.
 33  Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them is she? for seven had her to wife.
.34  And Jesus answering said unto them, The children of this world marry, and are given in marriage:
 35  But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage:
  35 - Neither marry An important concept.
  35 - Given in marriage We generally think of this as parents granting permission for a son or daughter to marry. But consider, children given to couples.
.36  Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.
.37  Now that the dead are raised, even Moses shewed at the bush, when he calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.
 38  For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living: for all live unto him.
  36 - Children of the resurrection A Jewish idiom, here in contrast to "children" in v34 and equivalent to "children of God."
  37 - Dead are raised Jesus speaks from the viewpoint after the resurrection.
  37 - Moses ... calleth Quoting from ex0306. Moses spoke to the God of "children of the resurrection." We cannot assume that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were living at the time but that they were to be among those who would be raised to eternal life.
  38 - God ... of the living He is God of the righteous those who "live unto Him." Those whose lives are not committed to Him have other gods, whether self, or materialism, or idols, or whatever they place above the true God. He sent Jesus to offer eternal life jn0316. Those who refuse, receive eternal death ez2818, ec0906. Thus, from an eternal perspective, He is God of the living.
.39 ¶ Then certain of the scribes answering said, Master, thou hast well said.
 40  And after that they durst not ask him any question at all.
  39 - Certain scribes The one appointed to get Jesus to look bad to the people by the marriage question, was an honest man. Compare mt2234,5. Apparently his friends were, too.
Jesus' question about David. Matt. 22:41-46; Mark 12:35-37; Luke 20:41-44.
.41  And he said unto them, How say they that Christ is David's son?
 42  And David himself saith in the book of Psalms, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand,
 43  Till I make thine enemies thy footstool.
 44  David therefore calleth him Lord, how is he then his son?
  42 - Book of psalms ps11001.
Woes for the Pharisees and scribes. Luke 20:45-57; Matt. 23:1-39; Mark 12:38-40.
.45  Then in the audience of all the people he said unto his disciples,
 46  Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts;
.47  Which devour widows' houses, and for a shew make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation.
  45 - Audience Or "hearing."
  47 - Devour "taking advantage of their helpless condition and confiding character, to obtain possession of their property, while by their 'long prayers' they made them believe they were raised far above 'filthy lucre.' So much 'the greater damnation' awaits them. What a lifelike description of the Romish clergy, the true successors of the scribes!" (JFB Commentary)
  47 - Greater damnation Greater punishment according to their condemnation. Here the not-so-evil damnation seems to be the Lord's civil enemies, verses 42, 43. The scribes and other Jewish leaders had access to the OT scriptures. They were cheating the people with the full knowledge of truth. Compare is1001.

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