Luke 23

Jesus sent to Pilate 1
Pilate sends Him to Herod; miracle demanded; returned Him to Pilate  7
Pilate consulted the Jews; they preferred Barabbas; Pilate accepted their will 13
Jesus led away; could not carry the cross, Daughters of Jerusalem  26
Put on the cross with two criminals  32
Reactions of the criminals  39
Jesus dies, forsaken 44
Jesus' body taken down before Sabbath  50
First trial before Pilate. Luke 23:1-5; Matt. 27:2, 11-14; Mark 15:2-5; John 18:28-38.
.1 ¶ And the whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate.
.And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.
 3  And Pilate asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answered him and said, Thou sayest it.
.4  Then said Pilate to the chief priests and to the people, I find no fault in this man.
 5  And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place.
  2 - Perverting the nation Jesus had clearly avoided reasons for accusation mt1422, mr0145, mr0642ff, jn0615. They had misinterpreted promises about the Messiah. See on lu0419.
  2 - Forbidding to give tribute Only a few days before the Jews had tried to get Him to make such a declaration without success mt2215. He later had allowed others to recognize Him as king. mt2105,9.
  5 - Fierce Or "urgent."
  5 - Stirreth He had not stirred them toward putting Him on the throne but in helping the people see Him as the Messiah in the resurrection of Lazarus. Compare jn1219.
  5 - Galilee His work began there. Compare ac1037.
Hearing before Herod Antipas.
 6  When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whether the man were a Galilaean.
.7  And as soon as he knew that he belonged unto Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem at that time.
.8  And when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding glad: for he was desirous to see him of a long season, because he had heard many things of him; and he hoped to have seen some miracle done by him.
 9  Then he questioned with him in many words; but he answered him nothing.
.10  And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused him.
.11  And Herod with his men of war set him at nought, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate.
 12  And the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together: for before they were at enmity between themselves.
   7 - As soon as "Herod's jurisdiction" was Galilee and Peraea, lu0301. See map. What was Pilate's motivation?
   8 - Desirous Herod had killed John the Baptist mr0601, mr0629 and was worried that Jesus might be the prophet brought back to life mr0614. He was also living in adultery mt1403, mr0617.
   8 - Hoped ... miracle Jesus didn't need to prove His divinity. The wicked king had had plenty of evidence. Christ's divine power was not for entertainment.
  9 - Answered him nothing Because the testimony had already been given in Jesus' life and ministry. Herod in particular had rejected the light from John the Baptist. For the same reasons, He had said nothing before the Sanhedrin and Pilate. See is5307.
  11 - Set Him at naught Or "treated him with contempt" (NKJV, RSV).
Second trial before Pilate. Matt. 27:15-31a; Mark 15:6-19; Luke 23:13-25; John 18:39-19:16.
.13 ¶ And Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people,
.14  Said unto them, Ye have brought this man unto me, as one that perverteth the people: and, behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him:
 15  No, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and, lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto him.
 16  I will therefore chastise him, and release him.
 17  (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast.
  15 - I sent you to him More recent Bible versions prefer readings of manuscripts such as the RSV, "He sent him back to us." I prefer the KJV. These men had been at the hearing before Herod, v.10. Pilate simply provides the information that He had sent them. Either reading is okay.
  16 - Chastise This is said to be the first whipping v16 with the second in mt2726.
.18  And they cried out all at once, saying, Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas:
.19  (Who for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder, was cast into prison.)
 20  Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spake again to them.
 21  But they cried, saying, Crucify him, crucify him.
  19 - Sedition Or "insurrection."
.22  And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let him go.
 23  And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed.
 24  And Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they required.
 25  And he released unto them him that for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will.
  23 - Requiring Rather "asking" or "demanding."
  25 - Delivered The sentence under Roman rule.
Crucifixion. Matt. 27:31b-56; Mark 15:20-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:17-37.
.26 ¶ And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus.
.27  And there followed him a great company of people, and of women, which also bewailed and lamented him. Weren't women people? Of course but, as in the illustration, they showed unusual bravery and tenderness for their Lord. They may also have been in a group keeping their distance from the men.
.28  But Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children.
 29  For, behold, the days are coming, in the which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the paps which never gave suck.
.30  Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us.
 31  For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?

   26 - Laid hold on Simon I've often thought what an honor it would have been to carry the cross, but would I have felt that way if I had been there? We do have the opportunity lu0923.
  28 - Weep not This is our compassionate Lord. The nation had rejected His grace and Jerusalem would soon be destroyed and many would die mt2337. Also
  29 - Days are coming In addressing the women as "daughters of Jerusalem," Jesus was quoting the words He had inspired Solomon to write centuries earlier. The phrase appears seven more times all in the Song of Solomon and first in Song 1:5.
  30 - Mountains fall See re0616.. - Image of Simon carrying the cross © 2000, Goodsalt
.32 ¶ And there were also two other, malefactors, led with him to be put to death.
 33  And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.
.34  Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.
 35  And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God.
 36  And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar,
 37  And saying, If thou be the king of the Jews, save thyself.
 38  And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.
  32 - Malefactors Or "criminals." Jesus was not a criminal v4 but we as sinners are criminals. He took our place.
  34 - Forgive them If they had understood and continued in sin, they could not have received the forgiveness offered. Just think. He has opened the door of forgiveness for you and me, too.

  This is the first of seven recorded statements of Jesus while on the cross. For the others see, v43, jn1926, mt2746 or mr1534, jn1928, jn1930, and v46.
.39  And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us.
40  But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation?
 41  And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss.
 42  And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom.
.43  And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
  40 - Powerful testimony.
  43 - Today Did the thief go to Paradise that day? One would assume so. In Greek, as in English, this word could describe the clause before it or the one after it. Early manuscripts did not separate words and there was no punctuation. It was added by translators. To know whether "today" was when the man was assured of salvation or whether it was when he would be in paradise, we read jn2017 where we find that Jesus didn't go to heaven until after the resurrection, so the thief could not have been with Him there. The text should read, "Verily I say unto thee to day, thou shalt. . . ." We also know that the Lord's promises are as good as the reality jn0336.
  43 - Paradise Greek  paradeisos. This is heaven where the Father dwells lu1102. The word is also used in re0207 which tells us that the tree of life is in paradise. The tree of life is on both sides of the river which flows from God's throne re2201f which is in heaven ps01104.
Image by Darrel Tank,
.44 ¶ And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour.
 45  And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.
.46  And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.
 47  Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man.
 48  And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned.
 49  And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.
  46 - I commend my spirit He died as a human. Divinity would not have died. He trusted the Father to restore His breath at His resurrection.
  45 - Darkened The moon is full at Passover time. This darkness was supernatural.
  46 - Gave up the ghost Literally, "breathed out." We say "expire."
Evening. Matt. 27:56-61; Mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:38-42.
.50 ¶ And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a good man, and a just:
 51  (The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them;) he was of Arimathaea, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God.
 52  This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus.
 53  And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid.
  51 - Not consented Joseph and Nicodemus would have objected at Jesus' trial before the Sanhedrin and would not have been invited.
  53 - Never Or "never, ever, ever." A triple negative in the Greek.
.54  And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on.
 55  And the women also, which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulchre, and how his body was laid.
 56  And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment.
 24:1 ¶ Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.
 2 And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.
By continuing into the next chapter we can see the sequence of days. We know that the "first day" was Sunday because Easter is on Sunday. The day after the preparation day and before Sunday is what we call Saturday. Luke wrote his book long after the events happened. He could have referred to the day as "the old Jewish Sabbath" but he didn't. It was simply "the sabbath day."
  56 - Rested ... according to the commandment It was the fourth of the ten (or the third in the Catholic arrangement). ex2008-11. The Sabbath had not changed. Also, Jesus "rested" in the tomb after providing redemption for humanity as He had also rested after six days of creation, providing a perfect home for our first parents. ge0201.
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