¶ Concerning the Ammonites, thus saith the LORD; Hath Israel no sons?
hath he no heir? why then doth their king inherit Gad, and his people dwell
in his cities?
.2 Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will cause an alarm of war to be heard in Rabbah of the Ammonites; and it shall be a desolate heap, and her daughters shall be burned with fire: then shall Israel be heir unto them that were his heirs, saith the LORD.
3 Howl, O Heshbon, for Ai is spoiled: cry, ye daughters of Rabbah, gird you with sackcloth; lament, and run to and fro by the hedges; for their king shall go into captivity, and his priests and his princes together.
4 Wherefore gloriest thou in the valleys, thy flowing valley, O backsliding daughter? that trusted in her treasures, saying, Who shall come unto me?
.5 Behold, I will bring a fear upon thee, saith the Lord GOD of hosts, from all those that be about thee; and ye shall be driven out every man right forth; and none shall gather up him that wandereth.
6 And afterward I will bring again the captivity of the children of Ammon, saith the LORD.
- Their king ... people Israel had apostatized.
2 - Ammonites ... desolate The Lord will punish.
3 - Heshbon An Ammonite city that had belonged to Moab. See map. 20 mi. (32 km.) east of the mouth of the Jordan.
3 - Ai is spoiled This seems to have been a city near Heshbon. ("Ai" is pronounced as "eye.")
3 - Daughters of Rabbah That is, the people of that city which is now called Amman.
4 - Backsliding daughter The Lord again addresses Israel.
5 - Bring fear See es0817.
6 - Bring again See on je4847.
¶ Concerning Edom, thus saith the LORD of hosts; Is wisdom no more
in Teman? is counsel perished from the prudent? is their wisdom vanished?
8 Flee ye, turn back, dwell deep, O inhabitants of Dedan; for I will bring the calamity of Esau upon him, the time that I will visit him.
9 If grapegatherers come to thee, would they not leave some gleaning grapes? if thieves by night, they will destroy till they have enough.
10 But I have made Esau bare, I have uncovered his secret places, and he shall not be able to hide himself: his seed is spoiled, and his brethren, and his neighbours, and he is not.
11 Leave thy fatherless children, I will preserve them alive; and let thy widows trust in me.
12 For thus saith the LORD; Behold, they whose judgment was not to drink of the cup have assuredly drunken; and art thou he that shall altogether go unpunished? thou shalt not go unpunished, but thou shalt surely drink of it.
13 For I have sworn by myself, saith the LORD, that Bozrah shall become a desolation, a reproach, a waste, and a curse; and all the cities thereof shall be perpetual wastes.
7 - Edom Or "Mount Seir" ge3608. The land of Easu. South of Moab. Now a desert area but prosperous at an earlier time.
- Teman "... city and region in Eastern Idumaea [map],
settled by Teman the grandson of Esau, Ge
1:12; Hab 3:3. The
men of Teman, Ge 36:34,
like others of the Edomites, had the reputation of great wisdom, Jer
21. Compare the sayings of Eliphaz the Temanite in the book of
Job." (ATS Dict.)
10 - Esau Addressing his descendants.
12 - Drink of the cup See je2515. "The severity with which God chastises his offending people, is a solemn warning to his enemies of the utter destruction that awaits them. If he spare not his own household, what shall be the end of those who are strangers and foreigners to it? 1Pe 4:17-19" (Family Bible Notes)
I have heard a rumour from the LORD, and an ambassador is sent unto the
heathen, saying, Gather ye together, and come against her, and rise up
to the battle.
15 For, lo, I will make thee small among the heathen, and despised among men.
.16 Thy terribleness hath deceived thee, and the pride of thine heart, O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the height of the hill: though thou shouldest make thy nest as high as the eagle, I will bring thee down from thence, saith the LORD.
17 Also Edom shall be a desolation: every one that goeth by it shall be astonished, and shall hiss at all the plagues thereof.
.18 As in the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighbour cities thereof, saith the LORD, no man shall abide there, neither shall a son of man dwell in it.
.19 Behold, he shall come up like a lion from the swelling of Jordan against the habitation of the strong: but I will suddenly make him run away from her: and who is a chosen man, that I may appoint over her? for who is like me? and who will appoint me the time? and who is that shepherd that will stand before me?
.20 Therefore hear the counsel of the LORD, that he hath taken against Edom; and his purposes, that he hath purposed against the inhabitants of Teman: Surely the least of the flock shall draw them out: surely he shall make their habitations desolate with them.
21 The earth is moved at the noise of their fall, at the cry the noise thereof was heard in the Red sea.
.22 Behold, he shall come up and fly as the eagle, and spread his wings over Bozrah: and at that day shall the heart of the mighty men of Edom be as the heart of a woman in her pangs.
- Rumor God sets up and brings down nations da0221.
16 - Clefts of the rock A fitting description of the land of Edom where Petra was located. See on nu2014.
19 - He shall come Edom is in view here although the description is almost the same as that of Babylon beginning in je5044.
19 - Swelling of Jordan Literally "the majesty of Jordan." See zc1103. We think of the flood time when the Israelites crossed. Earlier the Israelites had come up like a lion from crossing the Jordan. Compare je1205.
¶ Concerning Damascus. Hamath is confounded, and Arpad: for they have
heard evil tidings: they are fainthearted; there is sorrow on the sea;
it cannot be quiet.
24 Damascus is waxed feeble, and turneth herself to flee, and fear hath seized on her: anguish and sorrows have taken her, as a woman in travail.
25 How is the city of praise not left, the city of my joy!
26 Therefore her young men shall fall in her streets, and all the men of war shall be cut off in that day, saith the LORD of hosts.
.27 And I will kindle a fire in the wall of Damascus, and it shall consume the palaces of Benhadad.
- Damascus "A celebrated metropolis of Syria, first mentioned
and now probably the oldest city on the globe.... Since 1506, Damascus
has been held by the Turks." (ATS Dict.). See Assyria map,
27 - Ben-hadad Literally "son of god Hadad." Likely reference to Syrian kings. 1ki1518, 2ki1303.
¶ Concerning Kedar, and concerning the kingdoms of Hazor, which Nebuchadrezzar
king of Babylon shall smite, thus saith the LORD; Arise ye, go up to Kedar,
and spoil the men of the east.
29 Their tents and their flocks shall they take away: they shall take to themselves their curtains, and all their vessels, and their camels; and they shall cry unto them, Fear is on every side.
30 Flee, get you far off, dwell deep, O ye inhabitants of Hazor, saith the LORD; for Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath taken counsel against you, and hath conceived a purpose against you.
31 Arise, get you up unto the wealthy nation, that dwelleth without care, saith the LORD, which have neither gates nor bars, which dwell alone.
32 And their camels shall be a booty, and the multitude of their cattle a spoil: and I will scatter into all winds them that are in the utmost corners; and I will bring their calamity from all sides thereof, saith the LORD.
33 And Hazor shall be a dwelling for dragons, and a desolation for ever: there shall no man abide there, nor any son of man dwell in it.
- Kedar Descendants of Ishmael ge2513
along with the Moabites, Ammonites, and Edomites je48,
From Arabia, a nomadic, pastoral desert area. They were "men of the east."
28 - Hazor No cities east of Jordan bore that name which may have come from chasor meaning "an unwalled town." See is4211 and so0105.
¶ The word of the LORD that came to Jeremiah the prophet against Elam
in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah, saying,
35 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their might.
.36 And upon Elam will I bring the four winds from the four quarters of heaven, and will scatter them toward all those winds; and there shall be no nation whither the outcasts of Elam shall not come.
.37 For I will cause Elam to be dismayed before their enemies, and before them that seek their life: and I will bring evil upon them, even my fierce anger, saith the LORD; and I will send the sword after them, till I have consumed them:
38 And I will set my throne in Elam, and will destroy from thence the king and the princes, saith the LORD.
39 But it shall come to pass in the latter days, that I will bring again the captivity of Elam, saith the LORD.
- Elam The ancient kingdom that became part of Persia (Assyria)
which was taken over by the new Babylonian Empire under Nebuchadnezzar
It was apparently named for a son of Shem ge1022.
35 - Break the bow Their leader. Compare is2206.
36 - Scatter The nation would fall. Assyria forcibly scattered the people.
38 - Set my throne in Elam The Lord would be in control ps10319, je4310.
39 - Bring again the captivity He would gather the remnant of Elam who had become faithful to the Creator God "in the latter days." The story points to the climax of history which is just before us re1217. Also see on je4847.